Saturday, February 8, 2020
HRM Innovation and Change - Essay Example strategic goals to maintain competitive advantage through reorganization and emphasizing on improved communication amongst the management and employees. He also ensured that new arenas were explored for innovation and new product development introduced for the pre-defined customers as per their changing requirements with competitive pricing. The given text has reaffirmed the need of managerial leadership that has become imperative to facilitate more accommodating approach to the changing dynamics of the organizational culture and management. The integrated approach promotes collective vision of the organization and provides the necessary impetus to the employees to strive towards it. The management needs to accept the challenge of creating a cohesive and encouraging atmosphere so that the workers could get effective learning environment. They are provided with a wider scope for professional growth in the area of core competencies. Indeed, with the global competition becoming increasingly stiff, the jobs specifications are becoming less rigid and changing the overall perspective of job criteria and employment. The compulsions of the present times require versatility in the working force. Individuals and firms must embrace the culture of multi skilled professionals that are able to meet the challenges with efficiency and unmatched proficiency. The fundamental HR strategy must become more flexible for managing successful organization workforce. In the contemporary business environment, effective communication is essential for inculcating shared responsibilities, common goals and collective decision making. It can thus, be concluded that human resource strategy has become the most critical factor that develops the highly indigenous team of human capital that helps to provide the organization with a competitive advantage that is unique. HR initiatives are vital ingredients of managing change. The workforce is the backbone of an organization and the HR strategy needs
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Upton Sinclair Ã¢â¬Å"The JungleÃ¢â¬ Essay Upton Sinclair was a powerhouse of a writer, churning out 90 novels, 30 plays and countless articles, stories and pamphlets during his long life. In 1906, he gained fame and became a rich man after the publication of the muckraking The Jungle, a novel about the horrors of the Chicago meatpacking industry. The book helped convince Congress to pass the first Pure Food and Drug Act later that year. (Sinclair 1906) Nowadays people live in the world of economics and many people are thriving whereas many others are trying to dig through difficulties. Such struggle for survival was constant throughout the history of all societies. SinclairÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Ã¢â¬Å"The JungleÃ¢â¬ is one of the examples of such struggle penetrating into the conflicts of socialism, capitalism, natural selection and American dream. The novel involves readers into a journey of recent Lithuanian immigrants to America. It is seen that this journey opens anew world full of unexpected and awful events. (Sinclair 1906) Immigrants have to come to American Ã¢â¬Å"where in the early twentieth century it was said that any man willing to work an honest day would make a living and could support his familyÃ¢â¬ . (Sinclair 1906) Sinclair telling his story stimulates reader to start symbolic war against capitalism. It is apparent that Sinclair really disguises the very idea of capitalism presenting his idea throughout the novel Ã¢â¬â from cover to cover. Capitalism in the novel is personified in the JurgisÃ¢â¬â¢ desire to work, to earn more money as well as in the corruption of Ã¢â¬Å"the manÃ¢â¬ at the highest levels of society, etc. (Sinclair 1906) It is obvious that the symbols of capitalism and socialism are seen from the very start of the novel as they are constantly interrelated with the novel progression. Firstly, the author depicts the identity of Lithuanians considering they have the same values such as getting drunk and dancing. Sinclair makes to feel sympathy for those people as they try to preserve and follow traditions which they have brought with them from their native land. For example, everybody had his feeling of everything and strangers were always welcomed and warmly treated. In such a way the author introduces the concept of socialism meaning that everybody is equal in society. Actually the author tries to present socialism as the resolution to hi novel. Sinclair illustrates plight of the workers in Packingtown as the unfairness of capitalism. People were persuaded 5o join socialistic movement due to promised improvements in working conditions. When the main heroes Ã¢â¬â Jurgis and Ona Ã¢â¬â took a good luck for the first time, Jurgis said: Ã¢â¬Å"Tomorrow, I will go there and get a Job, and then we can have a place of our ownÃ¢â¬ . (Sinclair 1906) Jurgis is the representative of capitalism: he is longing to work in the plant considering it is the only way to make decent living and his poverty is the main driving force. However, it bore no fruits. The next two ideas involved into novel are concepts of social Darwinism or natural selection and American dream. Upton Sinclair introduced the idea of natural selection into his novel illustrating that only the best suited were able to survive in that environment and weak had to die off. The example is the prevalence of corruption in the town. American Dream is simply ridiculed throughout the story. Sinclair provided the main hero with a strong character having good morals and willing to work hard for family survival. Actually American Dream is embodied in Jurgis Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"I will work harderÃ¢â¬ . (Sinclair 1906) It is a matter of fact that capitalism is strongly criticized by Upton Sinclair throughout the novel. The author made an attempt to show the misery of capitalism leading immigrants through awful working conditions, unfair social attitude and treatment, impossibility to adapt to new world. It is apparent that Upton tried to open a door to new way of living Ã¢â¬â so-called socialism. The impact of the SinclairÃ¢â¬â¢s novel on the public is strong and it is possible to suggest the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s function is to serve as the propaganda against capitalism. Upton Sinclair wanted people to have equal job opportunities and better living conditions. He understood the difficulties of poor people and thus he always criticized unfairness in society. References Sinclair, Upton (1906) The Jungle. New York: Doubleday, Page.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
This part of the assignment will discuss balanced scorecard that has been implemented by UK National Health Service (NHS), how it has influenced and impacted upon the performance measures of this organisation. Ã¢â¬ËSince its launch in 1948, the NHS has grown to become the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest publicly funded health service. NHS employs more than 1.7m people and deals on average with 1m patients every 36 hours. It is also one of the most efficient, most egalitarian and most comprehensive. Even though NHS services in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland are managed separately and each might have some system differences, they remain similar in most respects and belong to a single, unified system. The NHS core principle is that good healthcare should be available to all, regardless of wealth.Ã¢â¬â¢ (NHS, 2010) Success of NHS depends on how well the organisation balance quality and customer (patient) satisfaction with adequate financing and long-range goals. Health care organisations such as NHS must deal with government oversight, managed care, new technologies, and increasing pharmaceutical prices. The NHS has adopted a performance measurement system that is based on the concept of balanced scorecard in order to obtain a broader view of performance within the organisation (Department of Health, 2001). Although, measuring performance evaluation of health care system could be difficult, it can on the other hand serve several purposes and can help facilitate change and improvements in the effectiveness and quality of health care. It seems peculiar to focus on performance measures in organisation such as NHS, but even NHS is facing increasing competitive pressures when considering ageing populations increasing demand, improved treatment... ...t in public/patient accountability, service efficiency and staff involvement to a highly prominent level. Government has developed Ã¢â¬ËStar RatingsÃ¢â¬â¢ system which monitors improvements in accountability measures. The experience of the Ã¢â¬ËStar RatingsÃ¢â¬â¢ system in respect of service efficiency indicates that it is prudent to act pro-actively rather than re-actively. It is vital to consider that the Government is expecting demonstrable improvements in health services rather than rhetoric alone (Radnor and Lovell, 2003). Ã¢â¬ËThough it is intricate to demonstrably prove in quantitative terms that the balanced scorecard can deliver efficiency improvements at the start of its implementation, it can be shown in quantitative terms that a well designed fully cascaded balanced scorecard system should address the needs of a health care system. Ã¢â¬â¢ (Radnor and Lovell, 2003, p. 105)
Monday, January 13, 2020
Aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment Cystic fibrosis: role of P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients
Introduction Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder of salt and water regulation in the cell. The disease is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene (Cohen and Prince, 2012). The molecular basis of CF depends on its transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, which functions as a channel and regulates the movement of ions and water across the epithelial barrier. The barrier opens in response to increased levels of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The gene in normal condition is responsible for salt (chloride) and water balance in the body. However, if mutated, is not able to excrete out enough salt of the cell; thus resulting, the build of salt within the cell forming sticky mucus. If accumulated in the lungs, this sticky mucus may clinically affect the epithelial innate function of the lungs and may result in ineffective airway inflammation that fails to eradicate pulmonary pathogens (Cohen and Prince, 2012). The working mechanism of CFTR protein under normal condition is shown in figure 1. Studies have shown that increase in sodium (Na) re-absorption on the epithelial cells may indicate an event in cystic fibrosis lung disease (Cohen and Prince, 2012). These mutations on the (CFTR) protein have impacts on its production and transfer to the epical membrane of the epithelial cells, thereby influencing the conductance of chloride and bicarbonate ions across the channels resulting in the CFTR ionic imbalance of on the epithelial cells of different organs. This leads to the formation of excessive mucus in the cells, which provides an ideal condition for bacteria growth and multiplication. Interestingly, even uncommon lung bacteria such as pseudomonas have been found to inhabit in the lungs exploiting the ideal condition (Clunes and Boucher, 2007). Abnormality in the CFTR pathway results in the increase of glycolipids on the surface of CF airway epithelial cells. These glycolipids serve as receptors to increase the binding activities of bacteria, thereby facilitating the early infection process, which is a hallmark of the disease. Moreover, defect in CFTR gene is also associated with decreased nitric oxide concentration in the cell. Nitric oxide possesses antibacterial properties; thus, decrease in its concentration may predispose an individual to severe infections with faulty CFTR gene (Clunes and Boucher, 2007). In addition, the role of inflammation in CF pathogenesis seems equally important. Inflammatory response produced against the infectious pathogens in CF patients may have detrimental effects to the host cells. Inflammatory infiltrates including macrophages, neutrophils, cytokines and interleukins may induce tissue damaging responses, further deteriorating the lung function (Cymberknoh, et.al. 2013). Inhabitation of bacteria in cystic fibrosis lung As mentioned earlier, even uncommon bacterium including Pseudomonas aeruginosa can reside in the cystic fibrosis lung (Hauser, et.al. 2011). Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram negative, rod shaped, aerobic bacterium that prefers moist environment for growth. Commonly they are found in places such as sewage and in certain areas of the human body. Furthermore, they reside in lakes, moist vegetables, moist soil and streams. Studies have also suggested that that most human infections due to P. aeruginosa result due to contact with these natural reservoirs (Friman, et.al. 2013). Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been recognized as an important pathogen in CF. Soon after residence in the lungs, it becomes extremely difficult to eradicate them by antibiotics. The persistent presence of these bacteria in the lungs ultimately results failure of the immune system to provide a defense against them; this leads to respiratory failure resulting in death of the patient (Folkesson, et.al. 2012). Firstly, P.aeruginosa acquires the airway of the patient with cystic fibrosis, which occurs during the very early phase of the disease. Infection may ensue once this bacterium enters the CF host and colonizes the oropharynx, then to the lower respiratory tract by process of micro aspiration. Infection becomes intermittent at the initial stage as a result of acquisition of different strains. During the early stage of infection, the isolate looks like environmental strains, non-mucoid and susceptible to antibiotics. Eventually P. aeruginosa establishes itself and chronic infection ensues (Folkesson, et.al. 2012). In chronic stage of CF, P. aeruginosa produces a mucoid alginate by growing in bio-film of the end- bronchiolar space. It lacks lipopolysaccharide and becomes non-motile, resulting in the development of antibiotic resistance during. Despite the known mechanism and availability of antibiotics, P.aeruginosa is able to chronically infect the airway of patients with CF and is able to cause an unrelenting decline in pulmonary function and deterioration; but how these happen has been focus on intense research (Folkesson, et.al. 2012). Molecular pathogenesis of P.aeruginosa infection in CF The molecular basis of infection due to P. aeruginosa in CF is still not fully understood. However, it may be peculiar to a specific strain at the time of adaptation after acquisition. Studies have indicated that the persistence of the bacterium in the lungs might be due to its high level of propensity and the ability to adapt with environmental changes and stress (Hauser, et.al. 2011). aeruginosa possesses traits that enable them to colonize and persist in acute and chronic infection. These traits include; High resistance to antibiotics (Zhang, et.al. 2011) Effective cell-cell communication singalling for growth and multiplication (Friman, et.al. 2013). Ability to form biofilms, plethora and virulence products and metabolic versatility (Wagner and Iglewski, 2008). The biofilms are synthesized by the bacterium encased within a hydrated polymeric matrix and are clinically important; this is because, P. aeruginosa in this mode of growth utilizes it to cope with phagocytes by the neutrophils and macrophages, as well as to the killing by antibiotics. This allows them for persistent survival in chronically infected CF despite the continuous natural immune response and antibiotics effect (Zhang, et.al. 2011). The disease pathogenesis and severity is further triggered by inflammatory responses in the later stage of the disease. Mainly the pro-inflammatory enhancers become physiologically active in the absence of function CFTR gene. Although the exact inflammatory pathophysiology of CF still remains debatable, persistent infection, poor pathogen clearance, acidic environment and are considered some of the key triggers for initiating chronic inflammatory response in the lungs of the patient with CF (Pier, 2008). The mechanism is explained in figure 2. Synthesis of ceramide from sphingomyelin by acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) and degradation by acid ceramidase (AC) is optimal at an acidic pH, such as that of normal intracellular vesicles (pH 4.5). Lack of functional CFTR increases vesicle pH to 5.9, partially inhibiting ASM and highly inhibiting AC, resulting in ceramide accumulation in the vesicle and age-dependent pulmonary inflammation. Other properties of the cystic fibrosisÃ¢â¬âaffected lung, including lack of the CFTR receptor needed for clearing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enhanced mucin secretion, a dehydrated airway surface liquid, viscous mucus and DNA deposits released from ceramide-engorged apoptotic cells, also contribute to P. aeruginosa airway colonization. Eventually, this microbe establishes a chronic infection wherein bacterial cells reside in low-oxygen mucus plugs and become highly resistant to clearance or killing by host defenses (Pier, 2008) P.aeruginosa potentially synthesize factors such as proteolytic enzymes, which damage the host cells by altering the host iron-containing protein forming hydroxyl radicals that contribute to host tissue injury and inflammation; thereby decreasing the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10, and at the same time, activating neutrophils in the airway lumen. Continuous recruitment of these neutrophils induces tissue damaging inflammatory response mainly affecting pulmonary tissue. Furthermore, neutrophils trigger the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as IL-8, which further contributes in the tissue damage process. In addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines, neutrophils also release the oxygen free radicals that induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) of the epithelial tissue in the lungs. Thus, to conclude, the role of neutrophils in airway inflammation in patients with CF seems crucial. Instead of providing innate immunity to the infected lung, it rather trigger s detrimental inflammatory response and promote the growth of P. aeruginosa though the production of different growth enhancing cytokines, leading to the destruction of the lung tissue (Sagel, et.al. 2009). The effectiveness of the immune response in CF is exploited, allowing the establishment of a relentless cycle, whereby persistent bacteria cause increased inflammation that itself leads to increased bacterial densities, which in turn results stronger inflammatory response (Sagel, et.al. 2009). The net result is progressive tissue damage and pathological consequences and sequelae of CF that include mucopurulent plugging of bronchioles, chronic bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchioles) and bronchial gland hyperplasia (increase in the cell size of bronchial gland cells). The airway later becomes dilated and results bronchiectatic due to loss of support cartilage (Pickett, 2013). Treatment options for cystic fibrosis The decision to treat patients who are infected with P.aeruginosa can be very challenging. Prolonged treatment with antibiotics can have toxic side effects, as well as increases the chance of microbial resistance in the patients. Also, prolonged treatment may cause long term harm. Data suggest that 80% of the patients with CF die indirectly or directly from pulmonary disease (Hurley, et.al. 2012). Clinically, there has been very little progress in the development of new antibiotics with novel mode of action. Recently, researchers exploited the adjuvant therapeutic agents that may be used alongside the conventional antibiotics. Source control measures, de-escalation of antibacterial should be followed up in patients with clinical response, especially with known antibacterial susceptibilities (Hurley, et.al. 2012). Considering the virulence of this pathogen, the progress of various strategies such as efflux pumps and lectins, the use of iron chelators, immunization, immunotherapy, and inhibition of quorum sensing are currently being tested clinically for the better management of the disease. It has also been suggested that the impacts of intervening virulence of P. aeruginosa should also be assessed (Hurley, et.al. 2012). Some novel therapies are also based upon the fact that CF is caused by the mutation of the gene encoding CFTR protein; targeting the defects produced in CFTR with invacaftor in one such approach. This novel treatment seems promising in patients with specific genotype of CF. Although the long term-outcome remains unknown, the development of CFTR targeted drug is an important milestone in CF (Petit, et.al. 2012). More recently, gene therapy has been extensively studied for the complete cure of the disease. However, the technique is not easy and has several limitations and hurdles. For instance, the research on this approach is very time consuming and often very expensive. However, focus of research has been on identifying the optimal vector for gene therapy (Picket, et.al. 2013). Thus, the management of CF has been a major challenge ever since the discovery of the disease. However, advancement in medical technologies and treatments has improved the prognosis of the disease. More sophisticated treatment including gene therapy (replacing faulty CFTR gene with a normal gene) has been the focus of intense research. P. aeruginosa resistance in CF Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the common infections in western society, because of its high level of resistance to antibiotics. The synergistic relationship between the outer membrane permeability and the efflux pumps is the most important factor influencing intrinsic antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria like P. aeruginosa (Liu, et. al. 1996). The high level of P. aeruginosa resistance is due to the acquired genes coding for amino glycoside-modifying enzymes or periplasmic beta-lactamases or mutations in fluoroquinolone targets (Liu, et.al. 1996). Low outer membrane permeability, which is caused by either less production of the OprD porin, or by expressing multidrug resistance efflux pumps contributes to high level of intrinsic antibiotics resistance (Liu, et.al. 1996). Numerous efflux pumps such as MexAB-OprM and MerXY-oprMb MexAB-OprM, MeXY-OprM, MexCD-OprJ, MexEF-OprN, MexJK, MexGHI-OpmD, MexVM, MexPQ-OpmE, MecMN and TriABC are encoded in the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These are of clinical importance because of their chemical ability to remove chemical-unrelated antibiotics. Among all, resistance-nodulation division (RND) super family contains the main efflux pumps of P. aeruginosa. This efflux pump has been discussed in greater details below. The energy source is derived from its proton motive force. Resistance Nodulation Division Efflux Pump Structure There are five families of multidrug resistance efflux pumps which include the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) super family, the major facilitator super family (MFS), the multidrug and toxic-compound extrusion (MATE) family, the small multidrug resistance (SMR) family and the resistance nodulation division (RND) family (Paddock, 2006). Efflux of antibiotics from the periplasm is a critical mechanism of antibiotic resistance utilized by Gram-negative cells. P. aeruginosa is capable of actively effluxing antibiotics from the periplasmic space using efflux pumps primarily from the RND family. The RND complex is tripartite in nature, composed of an outer membrane channel protein (OMP), inner membrane RND transporter, and a membrane fusion protein (MFP) (Kumar and Schweizer, 2005). The RND transporter provides the energy for the molecular transport and is often referred to as the RND pump protein (Misra and Bavro, 2009). The OMP interacts with the RND protein in the periplasm producing a chann el capable of transporting antibiotics into the extracellular space. The MFP is believed to stabilize the interactions between the RND transporter and the OMP (Misra and Bavro, 2009). All three of these components are essential for efflux function. The RND transporters are comprised of a homotrimer folded into a ?-helical transmembrane domain, with a large, soluble periplasmic domain. The top of the bacteria have semi-permeable membranes which may limit the passage of some types of antibiotics into the cell (Avrain, et.al. 2013). Multidrug resistance efflux pumps allow the bacterium to pump antimicrobials out of the cell. Porins maintain osmotic pressure by allowing the entrance/exit of hydrophilic small molecules but do not permit the passage of larger molecules. Enzymes can modify the antibiotic so that it is no longer recognized by the target, or modify them so that they are no longer functional. This is particularly prevalent with antibiotics that alter the ribosome or interfere with ribosome binding to inhibit protein synthesis. Inhibition of mRNA synthesis occurs by binding to DNA dependent RNA polymerase inhibiting initiation (Avrain, et.al. 2013). The mechanism of antibiotic resistance is shown in figure 3. Fig3: Different mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria (adapted from Fluit, et.al. 2001). In the figure, A represents mRNA and B represents tRNA. When exposed to antibiotics, MexAB-OprM and MexXY-OprM remain inducible but the rest of the systems when expressed in resistant strains may immensely contribute to biocide or antibiotics resistance. Antimicrobial components are released by the RND systems and these include first line anti-pseudomonal drugs such as beta-lactams and beta-lactamase inhibitors (Poole, 2011). Furthermore, alteration or loss of the outer membrane porin protein OprD is yet another common mechanism of resistant to carbapenems(Wang, et. al. 2010). Since P. aeruginosa infections are usually treated by the use of fluoroquinolone (Ciprofloxacin), its high level resistance is as a result of mutations in the DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes, which target these antibiotics. Outbreak of P. aeruginosa An outbreak can be defined as two or more sterile site isolate of the same species, with the same antibiogram, from different babies within the space of two weeks. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection outbreak on neonatal intensive care units reflects a degree of breakdown in infection prevention measures. Poor hand hygiene, low nurse: patient ratio, inadequate spacing between cots, overcrowding, environmental colonization (especially of water systems), inadequate cleaning of common use equipment, injudicious use of antibiotics, particularly broad spectrum and prolonged courses and delaying the introduction of material breast milk, all contribute to the emergence of outbreaks. It has been reported that infection from P. aeruginosa usually occurs 48hrs after birth, which affects two to three per thousand babies in the UK (Walker, et.al. 2013). The occurrence of the infection is even higher in those born prematurely or with surgical conditions (Durojaiye, et.al. 2011). Microbiological analysis In previous studies, (Walker, et.al. 2013) carried out the following microbiological investigations. Dismantling of Taps Taps and flow strengtheners from relevant hospital were dismantled, categorized into components, swabs and water samples were also taken. Samples for microbiological assessment were placed in 10 ml of maximum recovery diluents together with 10 sterile glass beads (3 mm diameter, VWR International, Lutterworth, UK). The surface of each component was scraped with a sterile plastic loop (Sterilin, Newport, UK) and the suspension was then vortex-mixed (10 s) to remove biofilm and to suspend the micro-organisms. Each sample was then spirally plated (Don Whitley, Shipley, UK) on to plate count agar (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) and Pseudomonas selective agar (PCN, Oxoid, UK), for determination of aerobic colony count (ACC) and P. aeruginosa count respectively. This was then incubated at 30Ã °C on (Plate Count Agar) or at 37Ã °C (PCN) for 48 h. It was found out that complex flow straightener had significantly higher P.aeruginosa counts (P
Sunday, January 5, 2020
John Locke states that personal identity is a matter of physiological continuity that is based on the consciousness of a person rather than the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s body. Personal identity is constituted by memory connections; specifically the depiction of autobiographical memory connections that result in constituting personal identity. John Locke states that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and psychology can be transferred to another body and that individual can still stay the same person because the consciousness of the person did not change. This idea is known as transplant intuition. This intuition is the basis of the account of personal identity. If a cerebrum was removed from one body and transplanted into a different body, the transplant intuitionÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Even if only a personÃ¢â¬â¢s body changes and the mind stays the same, the personÃ¢â¬â¢s physical identity changed, therefore a personÃ¢â¬â¢s entire identity experienced a change as well. Some errors of personal identity include the following; that since we change over time, our mind undergoes change as much as our body, so there will always be change occurring in the mind and the body. Thomas ReidÃ¢â¬â¢s argument is that identity is attributed only to the things that have continued existence, and since consciousness is transient and often interrupted, it cannot constitute personal identity. Reid gives an example of consciousness being transient when a person is either asleep or unconscious. Reid states that when a person is sleeping or unconscious, his/her consciousness is interrupted temporarily during that period of time. Locke can respond to this objection by questioning if consciousness is really transient. He can question if it is undeniably the case that we are unconscious when we are sleeping. Many other philosophers and psychologists argue that even though our conscious may be numbed during sleep, it is still functioning and has not been interrupted, that is why we are able to hear loud sounds and wake up from our sleep. Secondly, Locke only requires that it be possible and that there is a disposition to remember theShow MoreRelatedJohn Locke on Personal Identity906 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbetween them. What is it for A and B to be the same person. That is the issue of person identity. For example what is it for me to be the same person now and when I was a baby. Is that justified to be the same person? Why? How? Locke more or less invented this topic. He came up with a idea that was really impressively sophisticated, given that he started from scratch. He took the view that appropriate criteria of identity, that is what it is that constitute sameness over time, depends on the kind of thingRead MoreJohn Locke on Personal Identity950 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthat Locke believed that if you remain the same person, there are various entities contained in my body and soul composite that do not remain the same over time, or that we can conceive them changing. These entities are matter, organism (human), person (rational consciousness and memory), and the soul (immaterial thinking substance). This is a intuitive interpretation that creates ma ny questions and problems. I will evaluate Lockes view by explaining what is and what forms personal identity, andRead MorePersonal Identity, By John Locke1169 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesquestions surrounding personal identity: whether it consists in consciousness, whether we are just a soul or a mind and are we only who we can remember being? Locke claims that our personal identity is found in our identity of consciousness, yet can this be true if a person can change bodies, or one mind can be inhabited by various persons? In this essay, I will first be looking at LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s account of personal identity and how he comes to the conclusion that personal identity consists over time. FromRead MoreReflection Of Identity In Locke And John Lockes Personal Identity954 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJohn Locke in Ã¢â¬Å"Personal IdentityÃ¢â¬ argues that, identity is a function of the mind and not the body. In simple terms, Locke considers personal identity as a matter of psychological continuity, founded on consciousness and not on the substance of either the soul or the body. Locke, is an empiricism which means that his theories must be built on experiences. This is why he states that consciousness is the experience we create, which then creates the personal identity of a person. Locke says that theRead MoreLocke And John Lockes Theory On Personal Identity860 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Personal Identity or Ã¢â¬ËSelfÃ¢â¬â¢ has been a very important topic for philosophers for many years. Personal identity is how you describe or think of being which is derived from memories that have taken place over the years. John Locke was a philosopher who believed that your Ã¢â¬ËSelfÃ¢â¬â¢ or personal identity come from memory which is also referred to as consciousness in LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s writings. Locke believed that you are who you are, because your thoughts are yours alone no matter the vessel. However, in this paperRead MoreAnalysis Of John Locke And The Problem Of Personal Identity1622 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesProblems in Philosophy John Locke and the Problem of Personal Identity Personal identity, in a philosophical point of view, is the problem of explaining what makes a person numerically the same over a period of time, despite the change in qualities. The major questions answered by Locke were questions concerning the nature of identity, persons, and immorality (Jacobsen, 2016). This essay will discuss the three themes John Locke presents in his argument regarding personal identity, which are, the conceptRead MoreJohn Locke s Argument For Personal Identity Essay1547 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespurpose of this essay is to define what Personal Identity is by analyzing John LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s argument for Personal Identity. John LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s argument for Personal Identity will be examined, in order to establish a better understanding of whether or not the argument for personal identity could be embraced. In order to do so, the essay will i) State and explain LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s argument that we are not substances or mere souls and ii) State and explain LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s con cept of personal identity and its relations to what he callsRead MoreJohn Locke s Theory Of Self And Personal Identity Essay1449 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJohn Locke a seventeenth century Philosopher uses a number of thought experiments in his 1690 account, Ã¢â¬â¢An Essay concerning Human UnderstandingÃ¢â¬â¢. He uses these thought experiments to help explain his definition of the self and personal identity. The thought experiments that are used, go some way in explaining his opinions and in clarifying the role that memory plays in defining the term. Although defining personal identity was and still is a complex subject and not all philosophers share the sameRead MoreJohn Locke s Theory Of Personal Identity And Diversity1046 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthis has happened and therefore cannot be blamed for such a crime. Locke is known to believe in his theory of personal identity and diversity. LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s theory talks about consciousness and how our consciousness makes our identity throu gh our experiences. Locke states that we are only considered guilty of committing a crime if we were aware of it and remember doing it. Although I agree with Locke in some terms regarding our identity having something to do with our consciousness, I do not fully agreeRead MoreDescartes And John Locke s Views On Consciousness, Self, And Personal Identity1475 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDescartes and John Locke endeavored to question the views on consciousness, self, and personal identity. They examined belief in God, the certainty of knowledge, and the role of mind and body. The goal of this paper is to deliberate John LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s and RenÃ © Descartes views on Ã¢â¬Å"selfÃ¢â¬ and personal identity and how each come to examine how knowledge is captured. RenÃ © Descartes and John Locke both present arguments that are rational in the discussion of consciousness, self, and personal identity, but each lack
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Leonidas was a 5th century B.C. military king of the Greek city-state of Sparta. He is most well known for bravely leading a small force of Greeks, including the famous 300 Spartans, along with a few hundred Thespians and Thebans against the much larger Persian army of Xerxes, at the pass of Ã¢â¬â¹Thermopylae in 480 B.C. during the Persian Wars. Family Leonidas was the third son of Anaxandridas II of Sparta. He belonged to the Agiad Dynasty. The Agiad Dynasty claimed to be decedents of Heracles. Thus, Leonidas is considered a decedent of Heracles. He was the half-brother of the lateÃ King Cleomenes I of Sparta. Leonidas was crowned King after the death of his half-brother. Cleomenes died of a suspected suicide. Leonidas was made king because Cleomenes had died without a son or another, closer male relative to serve as a suitable heir and reign as his successor. There was also another tie between Leonidas and his half-brother Cleomenes: Leonidas was also married to Cleomenes only child, the wiseÃ Gorgo, Queen of Sparta. Battle of Thermopylae Sparta received a request from the confederated Greek forces to help in defending and protecting Greece against the Persians, who were powerful and invading. Sparta, led by Leonidas, visited the Delphic oracle who prophesizedÃ that either Sparta would be destroyed by the invading Persian army, or the king of Sparta would lose his life. The Delphic Oracle is said to have made the following prophecy: For you, inhabitants of wide-wayed Sparta,Either your great and glorious city must be wasted by Persian men,Or if not that, then the bound of Lacedaemon must mourn a dead king, from Heracles line.The might of bulls or lions will not restrain him with opposing strength; for he has the might of Zeus.I declare that he will not be restrained until he utterly tears apart one of these. Faced with a decision, Leonidas chose the second option. He was not willing to let the city of Sparta be wasted by the Persian forces. Thus, Leonidas led his army of 300 Spartans and soldiers from other city-states to face Xerxes in Thermopylae in August of 480 BC. It is estimated that the troops under LeonidasÃ¢â¬â¢ command numbered about 14,000, while the Persian forces consisted of hundreds of thousands. Leonidas and his troops fended off the Persian attacks for seven days straight, including three days of intense battle, while killing off large numbers of enemy troops. The Greeks even held off the PersianÃ¢â¬â¢s elite Special Forces known as Ã¢â¬ËThe Immortals.Ã¢â¬â¢ Two of Xerxes brothers were killed by LeonidasÃ¢â¬â¢ forces in battle. Eventually, a local resident betrayed the Greeks and exposed a back route of attack to the Persians. Leonidas was aware that his force was going to be flanked and taken over, and thus dismissed the vast majority of the Greek army rather than suffer more high casualties. Leonidas himself, however, remained behind and defended Sparta with his 300 Spartan soldiers and some other remaining Thespians and Thebans. Leonidas was killed in the resulting battle.
Friday, December 20, 2019
Use of Informatics in Pain Management Name of the Student Institutional Affiliation Use of Informatics in Pain Management Pain Management is a specialty in modern medicine, which focuses on treating all categories of pain such as spinal, neuropathic, sickle cell, and musculoskeletal pain disorders. According to Johnson, Collett, and Castro-Lopes (2013) pain management cases constitute about a third of PCPs (Primary Care Physicians) appointments. However, only sixty-percent or less of patients treated for chronic pain in routine practice setting achieves adequate pain relief. Some of the issues attributed to low success rate in chronic pain management can be associated with information management. In that regard, the processÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦According to Aiyegbusi et al. (2017), a sickle cell crisis is associated with episodes acute pain, which is the leading cause of hospitalization for the victims of the disease. A single hospitalization, for a sickle cell crisis case, may last from two weeks to over a month; hence, a patient encounters an immense chal lenge of keeping a job. In addition, Careful medication is required to treat sickle cell pain due to the frequent need to change drugs and the addictive nature of some substances used to reduce pain. Therefore, managing such a condition in the current pain management environment can be highly tasking to physicians and patients. Methodology A qualitative method was used to conduct the study on informatics due to the need of secondary data about the topic. The approach was considered the best for that research due to time constraints and the existence and easy accessibility of immense information on the study topic. Therefore, the study began with an online search of secondary materials in digital libraries using a set of key words and phrases. Some of the key words and phrases used include Ã¢â¬ËInformatics in healthcareÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëinformatics in pain managementÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëpain managementÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ësickle cell pain managementÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËInformaticsÃ¢â¬â¢, EPRON, advantages of Using EPRON in medical practice, and Ã¢â¬Ëchallenges in sickle cell managementÃ¢â¬â¢,. Digital libraries considered include google scholar,Show MoreRelated Nursing Process Change Paper1740 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswelfare during the surgical experience. Effective preoperative preparation is known to enhance postoperati ve pain management and recovery. Health professionals need to be cognizant of the contextual factors that influence patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ preoperative experiences and give context appropriate care (Aziato Adejumo, 2014). 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Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesPHILADELPHIA Temple University Press 1601 North Broad Street Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 www.temple.edu/tempress Copyright Ã © 2010 by Temple University All rights reserved Published 2010 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Essays on twentieth century history / edited by Michael Peter Adas for the American Historical Association. p. cm.Ã¢â¬â(Critical perspectives on the past) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-1-4399-0269-1 (cloth : alk. paper)Ã¢â¬âISBN 978-1-4399-0270-7